TL;DR: No, it seems to be unintentional.
According to Walter Murch, who was George Lucas' sound engineer on American Graffiti, he gave Lucas the inspiration for the name when he slated a tape of dialogue (reel 2, dialogue 2) in abbreviated form: "R2-D2".
Walter Murch: When I was working with Dick Portman on Godfather, I had picked up his habit of voice-slating each reel: "Reel Four, Dialogue One," for instance, would mean "Dialogue premix one for reel four," and so on. Except he abbreviated it to "R-4, D-1," something he had picked up from his father, Clem, who had been the mixer on King Kong and Citizen Kane. You can see where this is going. One day I was mixing the second dialogue premix for reel two of American Graffiti and voice-slated it "R-2, D-2," and George, who's sitting in front working on the script of "Star Wars", suddenly stood up: "What did you say?" "Ummm, I don't know.. R-2, D-2--is that what you mean?" "R2D2!!....What a great name!" he shouted, and went back to writing his script. The rest is history.
Wikipedia recounts the story:
The name is said to derive from when Lucas was making one of his earlier films, American Graffiti. Sound editor Walter Murch states that he is responsible for the utterance which sparked the name for the droid. Murch asked for Reel 2, Dialog Track 2, in the abbreviated form "R-2-D-2". Lucas, who was in the room and had dozed off while working on the script for Star Wars, momentarily woke when he heard the request and, after asking for clarification, stated that it was a "great name" before falling immediately back to sleep.
Star Wars Databank used to contain the story, but claimed that "Reel 2, Dialogue 2" was labeled on a can of tape from a different Lucas film, THX-1138:
Wookieepedia tells this story as well, then says:
However, according to a trivia question in Star Wars: Behind the Magic, the "Reel 2, Dialogue 2" explanation is just a tale. Lucas himself corrected it in Star Wars: The Annotated Screenplays and revealed the character's name was created by repeating common phonetic sounds until he discovered one that he enjoyed.
This isn't necessarily the truth - Lucas frequently says misleading or disingenuous things about the origins of his ideas - but whichever explanation is correct, no one in a position to know the truth claims that the name "Arturito" was a factor in choosing R2-D2's name.
On a side note, "R2" doesn't really sound like "Arthur" in English, because the "th" sound is soft.