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Humans in the Star Trek universe are like humans today---in general, they require about 7-9 hours of sleep per night to function adequately the next day.

Is there any mention of the sleep needs of other races---Vulcans, Klingons, Gorn, Ferengi, augmented humans (Dr. Bashir, Khan), etc.?

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There are way too many species in Star Trek. Please elaborate on which of them you would like the information. – Overmind Feb 17 at 13:26

Memory-Alpha does have a page on Sleep.

Vulcans can go up to two weeks without sleep. VOY: "Muse"

Dr. Phlox (a Denobulan) requires very little sleep each night (or none at all), but does have a long hybernation period for 5-6 days once a year. ENT: "Dear Doctor", "Two Days and Two Nights", "Similitude"

Changlings (or at least Odo) had to revert to a gelatinous state every 16 hours, as he was unable to hold a solid form for much longer. DS9: "The Forsaken"

Tosk seems to only require seventeen minutes of sleep each rotation(whatever that is). DS9: "Captive Pursuit"

Neither the Jem'Hadar nor Species 8472 require any sleep. DS9: "To the Death" VOY: "Scorpion", "Scorpion, Part II"

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I wonder if space creatures, like the Crystalline Entity, Tin Man, and others, require some sort of "sleep." – T-1000's Son Feb 16 at 23:22

Vulcans

In the TOS episode "The Paradise Syndrome", Spock claims:

I am not hungry, Doctor. And under stress, we Vulcans can do without sleep for weeks.

In Voyager "Muse", Tuvok says something similar:

As a Vulcan, I can function without sleep for more than two weeks.

Although this doesn't give a number of hours, I feel it is relevant to your concern about "functioning adequately" — it suggests that Vulcans can function adequately without any sleep for a number of days before seeing any subsequent decline in their performance.

Odo

Also, while not sleep exactly, Odo must return to a liquid state every 16-18 hours — a fact which is regularly repeated in DS9. It is unclear, however, if this extends to the rest of the Changelings (many of whom have superior shapeshifting skills).

When he's deprived of his down time, he doesn't function very adequately:

enter image description here

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I feel like that if I nap during the day... – Valorum Feb 14 at 22:48
    
If Vulcans can go several days or even a couple of weeks without sleeping, I find it doubtful that they sleep 7-9 hours in any given night. Unless they're particularly exhausted from a hard day or whatever. – T-1000's Son Feb 14 at 23:11
    
@T-1000'sSon : They probably meditate more than they sleep --- Tuvok spends considerable time meditating. – Praxis Feb 14 at 23:12
    
Yeah, that probably takes up a lot of their "rest." Though obviously they need literal sleep, too. – T-1000's Son Feb 14 at 23:13
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@T-1000'sSon : There are instances of Tuvok sleeping, such as when they were being attacked in their sleep by a species that communicates through dreams. (Tuvok had a nightmare where he walked onto the bridge naked.) – Praxis Feb 14 at 23:18

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