I know there are many awards for science fiction works in general, such as the Hugo and Nebula. Are there any awards specifically for children's science fiction literature?
The categories include
More recently, the Monica Hughes Award has been honoring Sci-Fi books for adolescents, but only Canadian authors are eligible.
There are quite a few children's SF awards. Most awards for kids' SF are either one in a system of awards or categories within larger awards. The Golden Duck awards are the only ones I can think of specializing in kids' SF, without being part of something bigger.
And I'm sure there are some I missed, especially for other languages.