Would the ancient dark spell that Wormtail carried out for Voldemort have still worked if Voldemort had not created Horcuxes?
On one hand, yes, in that no Horcruxes were used in the creation of the resurrection potion used by Voldemort at the end of Goblet of Fire to recreate his body. On the other hand, had Voldemort not created his Horcruxes, he would have been killed by his own Avada Kedavra curse when it rebounded from Harry and hit Voldemort when Voldemort tried to kill Harry when Harry was a baby. In that event, Voldemort would have been dead and the events at the end of Goblet of Fire would never have come to pass. So in this instance presumably no, because Voldemort would not have survived to get to the point of resurrecting his body. But the potion did not require a Horcrux to be created; if Voldemort somehow had managed to survive his first encounter with Harry, even though he had no Horcruxes, and had managed to make it all the way to the events of Goblet of Fire, then the potion should have worked exactly the same.
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If we phrase that spell as a spell that took a surviving piece of Voldemort's soul and used it to reconstruct Voldemort, then it's essentially the restoring of a backup.
Had Voldemort never actually created any backups, there would have been nothing to restore, so it's not that the spell wouldn't have worked, but that no-one would've even tried to use it.