Going only by the films, I think we can safely assume that midichlorian transfusions don't work.
Imagine the possibilities if they did work. As you say, one could turn normal people into Jedi, or Jedi into much more powerful Jedi, with a transfusion of blood from Yoda, Mace Windu, or whoever. The Jedi certainly could use the extra numbers; in Espisodes I and II, we repeatedly hear that they are too few to effectively keep the peace in the galaxy. Furthermore, Qui-Gon would not be nearly so excited about discovering Anakin if powerful Jedi could simply be manufactured on demand.
We don't see this occur, therefore there is some reason why they don't do it. Possibilities are:
It doesn't work. The transfused midichlorians die off or fail to provide Force ability in the new host.
It works, but it has a negative effect on the physical or mental health of the recipient.
It works, but the boost is so short-term that it's not considered worth it. (One could imagine Jedi carrying vials of high-midichlorian blood for emergencies, but maybe the midichlorians don't live long enough once they are separated from their original host?)
It works, but there is a law or custom against doing it. Perhaps the senior Jedi do not want to share their power with anyone!
We don't really know but (1) is the simplest explanation, so by Occam's Razor it is fair to consider it the correct one.
(Out of universe, midichlorians weren't mentioned at all in Episodes IV-VI. They were one of the many things that fans really disliked in Episode I, so Lucas quietly dropped them in Ep II and Ep III.)