No truly canonical answer to this is available to my knowledge but some of the novels go into the creation of the Prime Directive. The closest I can get to canonical is that the PD was created sometime after the 2160s, when the USS Horizon left a book behind on Sigma Iotia (TOS: A Piece Of The Action).
Memory Alpha provides the following:
The Prime Directive did not go into effect as a General Order until sometime after the 2160s (which is when the crew of the starship Horizon left behind books on technology and culture that radically altered the course of civilization on the planet Sigma Iotia II.) (TOS: "A Piece of the Action").
While the Prime Directive was not officially formulated until after the 2160s, the fundamental principles were an important part of Earth Starfleet procedures as early as 2152. (ENT: "The Communicator")
Memory Beta provides some further outlines, but again the details are non-canonical:
"By the 2170s, it was decided by the Federation Council that action needed to be taken and in 2175 the Resolution of Non-Interference was drafted and signed by all Federation members, putting together a single philosophy to be adopted. By the 2190s, the Prime Directive had come into force. (TNG - Double Helix novel: Double or Nothing)"
Nothing I have read or seen outlines the details of exactly who proposed or seconded the motion to create a Prime Directive. In all likelihood, and this is pure speculation on my part, the PD was born because several incidents of interference with planetary cultures occurred and various Starfleet and Federation personnel decided to formalise some rules to attempt to make sure it did not happen again.