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Talking about grown dragons here - I don't recall ever reading about how tough their skin is or what their fighting style is (do they just fly around breathing fire or do they get down to business skyrim-style?).

Most importantly, I want to know if anyone has ever killed a dragon? And if so, how? And if not, is there evidence of it being possible?

Please note that I'm looking for for facts from the books that show whether it's possible and whether it's been done

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There are dragon skulls in the dungeons in the Red Keep. I assume they did not die of old age. – TLP Jun 21 '14 at 21:40
@TLP - According to the GoT Wiki, aside from the two that died in infancy, pretty much all of the others died violently... – Valorum Jun 21 '14 at 21:46
Is op's question "Are GOT dragons immortal/impervious to harm" or "Can GOT humans kill a dragon?" – user16696 Jun 21 '14 at 22:03
They're like main characters: Very susceptible to violent deaths. – Kroltan Jun 22 '14 at 16:47
@Kroltan - Yes, the important thing is to not get attached to any named individual... – Valorum Jun 22 '14 at 20:10
up vote 21 down vote accepted

Dragons are susceptible to physical injury, especially those involving sharp metal-pointed spears or arrows as well as injury from blunt trauma.

The 4th in the Dunk and Egg novella series "The Princess and the Queen" by GRRM contains a vivid depiction of the damage a dragon can receive:

Hundreds fled in terror from her flames … but hundreds more, drunk or mad or possessed of the Warrior’s own courage, pushed through to the attack. Even at the apex of the dome, the dragon was within easy reach of archer and crossbowman, and arrows and quarrels flew at Dreamfyre wherever she turned, at such close range that some few even punched through her scales. Whenever she lighted, men swarmed to the attack, driving her back into the air. Twice the dragon flew at the Dragonpit’s great bronze gates, only to find them closed and barred and defended by ranks of spears.

Unable to flee, Dreamfyre returned to the attack, savaging her tormenters until the sands of the pit were strewn with charred corpses, and the very air was thick with smoke and the smell of burned flesh, yet still the spears and arrows flew. The end came when a crossbow bolt nicked one of the dragon’s eyes. Half-blind, and maddened by a dozen lesser wounds, Dreamfyre spread her wings and flew straight up at the great dome above in a last desperate attempt to break into the open sky. Already weakened by blasts of dragonflame, the dome cracked under the force of impact, and a moment later half of it came tumbling down, crushing both dragon and dragonslayers under tons of broken stone and rubble.

Another was killed with a spear to the eye:

Morghul, it is written, was slain by the Burning Knight, a huge brute of a man in heavy armor who rushed headlong into the dragon’s flame with spear in hand, thrusting its point into the beast’s eye repeatedly even as the dragonflame melted the steel plate that encased him and devoured the flesh within.

and another with an axe to the head:

Shrykos was the first dragon to succumb, slain by a woodsman known as Hobb the Hewer, who leapt onto her neck, driving his axe down into the beast’s skull as Shrykos roared and twisted, trying to throw him off. Seven blows did Hobb deliver with his legs locked round the dragon’s neck, and each time his axe came down he roared out the name of one of the Seven. It was the seventh blow, the Stranger’s blow, that slew the dragon, crashing through scale and bones into the beast’s brain.

Another was apparently killed, either with a crossbow bolt but more likely with a grapnel:

Several differing tales were told afterward of how and why the dragon fell. Some claimed a crossbowman put an iron bolt through his eye, but this version seems suspiciously similar to the way Meraxes met her end, long ago in Dorne. Another account tells us that a sailor in the crow’s nest of a Myrish galley cast a grapnel as Vermax was swooping through the fleet. One of its prongs found purchase between two scales, and was driven deep by the dragon’s own considerable speed. The sailor had coiled his end of the chain about the mast, and the weight of the ship and the power of Vermax’s wings tore a long jagged gash in the dragon’s belly. The dragon’s shriek of rage was heard as far off as Spicetown, even through the clangor of battle. His flight jerked to a violent end, Vermax went down smoking and screaming, clawing at the water. Survivors said he struggled to rise, only to crash headlong into a burning galley. Wood splintered, the mast came tumbling down, and the dragon, thrashing, became entangled in the rigging. When the ship heeled over and sank, Vermax sank with her.

Out of Universe, GRRM intriguingly suggested that we may see a dragon-on-dragon fight at some point in the future;

Q. Can a stag kill a dragon? More to the point, could any animal kill a dragon?

A. That remains to be seen, but perhaps...another dragon.

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Sounds like the last one might have drowned rather than necessarily being "killed with a grapnel". Which I confess is a pedantic point, since you've already shown two cases where yes, a dragon was killed directly by the human-inflicted blow. – Steve Jessop Jun 22 '14 at 15:01
@SteveJessop - Drowning may have been the mechanistic cause of death but the grapnel was the proximate cause of death – Valorum Jun 22 '14 at 15:10
Sure. I'm not claiming the sailor would get off a dragonslaughter charge on straightforward grounds of not having caused the death. If you lure a dragon with bait, and it gets tangled in the rigging of a sinking ship then you've "killed it with a sausage", nevertheless a sausage is not thereby demonstrated sufficient to kill a dragon. Whereas Hobb's axe was. As I say, a pedantic point. – Steve Jessop Jun 22 '14 at 15:24
@SteveJessop - If we're getting technical then the correct term is 'dracocide' :-) – Valorum Jun 22 '14 at 15:33

Yes, dragons can be killed.

In fact, almost every dragon known has been killed in violent circumstances. The best description we have of dragon warfare is from the novella The Princess and the Queen, which describes the civil war known as The Dance of the Dragon that erupted between two branches of the House Targaryen. Dragons would for the most part be used as bombers. Swooping in on land forces and breath fire on them. Every now and then, a dragon to dragon fight would happen. In those occasions the dragons would fight in mid air using fire, tooth and claw to hack at each other until one fell and died. Dragons have also been killed by men, though it is a very difficult task. Their hides are indeed very though, but not impervious and can be pierced with arrows and well placed ax strikes. They also have weak spots, most notably their eyes.

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