Middle-earth is a region within J.R.R. Tolkien's fantasy world Arda and the setting for The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.

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What happened to Arnor after the fall of Angmar in TA 1975

From what I can understand Arnor was invaded by Angmar, but Angmar itself was defeated by Gondor shortly afterwards in TA 1975. Formally Arnor was restored by Aragorn when he was crowned the King of ...
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Did Tolkien ever specify that Orodruin was a volcano?

It is incredibly clear that Orodruin (Mount Doom) was a volcano. It is a mountain with fire inside of it, and it periodically belches forth ash, smoke, and rock. This is what volcanoes do best ...
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Is there a map of Middle Earth during the second age? [duplicate]

Where can I find a map of Middle Earth during the Second Age circa SA 1600 (before the war of the Elves and Sauron)? The following site ...
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How are beings distinguished with respect to 'power' in Middle Earth?

Many characters are referred to, both in canon, and by the community, as being 'powerful'. Gandalf is a powerful wizard; Sauron is very powerful; Morgoth is one of the most powerful beings to have ...
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Which of his races did Tolkien draw?

This question isn't as broad as it might appear at first glance. I've seen drawings of dragons, Dwarves, Trolls, and Hobbits by Tolkien, and I'm primarily interested in only a few other races. He ...
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Was there only a single mithril-mail shirt made?

Considering mithril is both incredibly light and strong (compared to other materials such as steel) are there any references to there being more than a single mithril mail shirt (Bilbo's) ever being ...
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What defines an age in Middle Earth?

Looking at the various pages for the first, second, third and fourth ages, we see they are of varying length. I am wondering what is the definition of 'an age' in Middle Earth and how it is decided ...
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Was Grima the only one who knew about the weak spot in Helm's Deep?

In the movie at least of The Two Towers, Grima Wormtongue mentioned to Saruman a nasty weak spot in the outer foundations of Helm's Deep - a small tunnel which allows a wee stream to flow to and fro. ...
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Do we know anything about what a clock face would look like in Middle Earth?

What might a clock face look like in Middle Earth, assuming a device similar to a typical clock in the real world? Lots of sub-questions have arisen. What kind of subdivisions would there be? Are ...
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Who controls The Watcher in the Water?

There is a lake kraken-like creature in front of The Gates of Moria, mentioned in the book and shown in the movies and I want to know who controls it? Is it an independent creature, or it's controlled ...
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Are there any orc names mentioned in LOTR movie trilogy?

There are a lot of orcs that are mentioned by name in the Lord of the Rings books; Ugluk, Grishnakh, Mauhur, Gothmog, etc. But are there any mentions of their names in Peter Jackson's movie trilogy?
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How many Stars of Elendil were there, and what happened to each of them?

In The Lord of the Rings, Aragorn wears a jewel called the Elendilmir, or Star of Elendil, upon his brow. This stone, which was also known as the Star of the Dunedain and the Star of the North, was ...
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Who created the Dailir?

In the Lord of the Rings, the Sindarin Elf Beleg Cúthalion wielded what was probably the only enchanted bow mentioned in the history of Middle-Earth (at least, the only one I could find) which he ...
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How can Tolkien's characters see stars during the daytime?

In many places throughout Tolkien's works, he describes his characters seeing stars in the sky during daylight hours, usually when the characters are passing through deep, narrow canyons or ravines. ...
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Is there a companion or guide to The Silmarillion?

Since I finished reading The Silmarillion, and learned a little bit about how it was assembled, I've been curious as to whether there is some way to get a better sense of what the source material ...
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Why did Christopher Tolkien remove all references to England and Ælfwine from the published Silmarillion?

Reading through the History of Middle-Earth series, it's quite clear the Tolkien had England and Eriol/Ælfwine of England in his mind though most of the history of developing the legendarium. The idea ...
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How tall were the Valar in their physical raiment?

From all my readings of the Silmarillion and other Middle-Earth writings (such as the HoME series), I always got a clear impression that the Valar were much taller than the Elves or Men. However, I ...
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Is there reference to Sport in Middle Earth?

I'm currently reading The Hobbit and came across this curious excerpt from Thorin: If we don't get blown off, or drowned, or struck by lightning, we shall be picked up by some giant and kicked ...
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Is it important to read The History of Middle-earth in order?

I'm almost done reading The Silmarillion, and I have a few options available as far as what I should read next: Unfinished Tales, the Reader's Companion to LotR, and The Return of the Shadow. This ...
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Where did the Dwarves get their food from?

In Tolkien's writings, dwarves are practically always (to my knowledge) pictured as living in underground halls, inside mountains, etc. We never hear about dwarves working fields and pastures, or even ...
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Are there gender-specific terms for Elves?

In Tolkien's world, "Men" (i.e., humans) are one thing and "Elves" are another. However, within the category of "Men", there are obviously subcategories for each gender (i.e., men and women, or male ...
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Are there handicapped Elves?

In The Silmarillion, we read about Maedhros, whose hand was amputated in order to free him from the manacle which had kept him suspended from the mountain called Thangorodrim. The hand never grew ...
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Do the Tolkien elves need to eat to survive?

On the one hand, they are physically very similar to humans, and the only crucial difference is that they don't age or fall ill. This, as well as frequent mention of food being eaten by elves, gives ...
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Is there a land mass or island in the middle of the Sea of Rhun? [duplicate]

I've seen some conflicting maps regarding a landmass/island of sorts (?) in the Sea of Rhun, does anyone have evidence supporting this (or ruling it out)
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How can there be hill trolls present in the chapter “The Black Gate Opens?” [duplicate]

In The Return of the King, the chapter "The Black Gate Opens" where Gandalf, the King of Gondor, and their allies make a final war against Sauron before the Morannon we are told: ...the sun now ...
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In the Fourth Age, what was the oldest creature left alive in Middle Earth?

After the War of the Ring, Sauron = dead. Saruman = dead. Gandalf = has left on the ship. Elrond = left. Galadriel = left. What was the oldest creature still alive in Middle-Earth in the Fourth Age?
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Which King took possession of the Stone of Orthanc?

In The Return of the King, when the Fellowship finally parts ways, Pippin says that he wishes they each had palantiri so they could communicate with each other over long distances. Aragorn responds: ...
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Why did the Valar abandon the Moriquendi and Men?

There is plenty of discussion on this site about why the Valar didn't intervene in more obvious ways in the Second and Third Ages, but I'm asking about the First Age. Between the return of Melkor to ...
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What happened next in Middle-earth?

This question is a follow up from this one, so credit goes to @Scholar. I'm interested in what happens after the cameras stopped rolling and everyone got on with their lives. Does the destruction ...
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Is there a difference between “elvish” and “elven”?

Throughout Tolkien's works, we frequently come across the terms "elvish" and "elven". Is there a difference between these terms? For example, does one refer to characteristics of the Elves ...
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How did non-native plants find their way to Middle-earth?

I am reading The Return of the King, and when I got to the chapters concerning the Battle of the Pelennor Fields, something struck me. Earlier in the story, Theoden was shocked to see Merry and ...
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Name suffixes/prefixes in Middle-earth

I know that there are some things in languages of Middle-earth that name someone the son or daughter of another, for instance Thranduilion meaning son of Thranduil. What language is that specific ...
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Were personal relationships in Middle-earth different from our own?

Now that I am almost done reading The Lord of the Rings, I am curious about the apparent lack of interest many characters and races seem to show towards their friends and relatives. In The ...
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Do Peredhil lose their pointed ears when they choose to be counted as Edain?

Reading Do Tolkien's Elves have pointy ears? got me thinking: Elrond and Elros were born Peredhil, and given the choice whether to belong to the Eldar or the Edain. In choosing, does their ...
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Why did Tolkien reverse the more common traditional genders assigned to the sun and moon?

In most cultures throughout history, from ancient Rome to China, from the Americas to Africa, there has been a general trend (although there have been plenty of exceptions) in assigning a gender to ...
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Which Middle-Earth baddie am I thinking of?

This is a tricky question that I am not sure I should even ask, but here it is: A few years ago, I read something online about Tolkien's works, especially LotR and The Silmarillion. It related to ...
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Was Bilbo Baggins an actual burglar?

This is assuming that Gandalf did not have a sixth sense about Bilbo having a much bigger role to play in the quest; and ignoring the fact that Hobbits are generally more difficult to be detected ...
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How can a storm cloud in Middle-earth “move behind the sun”?

This is probably the most trivial question I've ever asked here, and relates to something mentioned in passing. The passage occurs in The Two Towers, Book IV, "The Taming of Smeagol". While ...
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When Eru reshaped Arda, did he also change the cosmos?

According to The Silmarillion, Arda (Earth) was originally flat; when Numenor tried to invade Aman, Eru Iluvatar reshaped the planet. He made Arda spherical, and set Aman apart as a separate "planet" ...
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Why do human lifespans vary so much in Middle-earth?

The LotR project's statistics section offers some confusing numbers in regards to human life expectancy. Their figures are based on a survey of all characters for whom the relevant data exists, and ...
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How much Dwarvish appears in Tolkien's work?

The comments on this question led to an interesting conversation about the Dwarvish language (apparently known as Khuzdul among the Dwarves themselves). The conversation centered on Gimli's battle ...
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Are there businesses in Mordor?

This is a fairly straightforward question. In The Two Towers, it is revealed that Sauron pays his armies. When Merry and Pippin are abducted by Orcs, the Orcs argue about what to do with them. An ...
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Do the Ents go to the Undying Lands?

In the book The Two Towers Treebeard tells Merry and Pippin the sad story of the Entwives, who were lost (literally lost - they didn't die); he says the Ents believe that they "may meet [the Entwives] ...
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How did Saruman's army reach Helm's Deep so quickly?

In the Lord of the Rings movies, when Saruman sends his army to attack Helm's Deep, he says "This night the land will be stained with the blood of Rohan. March to Helm's Deep. Leave none alive. ...
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Did Elrond Half-Elven have any title?

Elrond is clearly in charge at Rivendell, and is an important and powerful person in the world at large. He is a ring-bearer, having received Vilya from his great-uncle Gil-galad. He also held a ...
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Timespan of events occurring in Middle Earth [duplicate]

I haven't read the Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit novels, I have just watched the movies. I want to know the timeline for events as per the movies. I want to know the exact timespan between the ...
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Why were the doors of Moria made so easy to open?

Dwarves are supposed to be suspicious and secretive. Why allow anyone who knew the elvish word for "friend" to enter?
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What is the last written record from Arda?

What is the youngest written record from Arda? I’m not refering to the last thing that we know has happened, or what Tolkien had in mind (e.g., in Wikipedia’s Timeline of Arda, the last entry from ...
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Why didn't Aragorn cut a better deal with the Army of the dead and was the deal really limited to one battle? [duplicate]

I know it was already asked, "Why didn't Aragorn keep going with the army of the dead?" and the obvious answer that he gave his word and had to keep to it. I'm not sure why somebody didn't read what I ...
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Why didn't the elves stop Sauron from giving out the 16 rings of power?

It is said that the elves became aware of Sauron's deceit when he tried to use the One Ring on them. So they would obviously have guessed that the bearers of the other 16 rings would be vulnerable as ...