I apologize in advance that I don't have a lot of details about a story or novellla that I'm looking for. It's from a few decades ago, probably 1960s, and I read it in the late 70s or early 80s. The only major details I can remember are that humanity is divided into groups, one are enlightened humans and the other group are mutants who are slaves and have no rights. I can't remember what the mutations were.
There is a revolt and all the mutants are killed except for one who is burned at the stake. This makes the last one into a martyr and causes a new religion to be founded, which is significant because religion has left earth by this point.
Does anyone know whose story this is? I was thinking Harlan Ellison or one of his collections, but can't find anything.