Raistlin had a weak body from the beginning. As mentioned in the previous answer, he nearly died shortly after being born, but was nursed to life by his half-sister Kitiara.
Furthermore, during the test, Raistlin made a bargain with the old lich (undead wizard)1 Fistandantilus. Raistlin got even weaker, as Fistandantilus exchanged part of Raistlin's life force for his help:
- Survival during the test
- knowledge to defeat Cyan the Bloodbane and to obtain the Dragon Orb
- help to defeat the Dragon Orb.
And numerous other occasions.
Thus Raistlin became weak, both due to the injuries received in the Test and due to Fistandantilus's drain imposed on his body.
In The Soulforge it is revealed,
that it was not the test that shattered Raistlin's body, but his bargain with Fistandantilus did, because the lich drained his life force in order to sustain himself. After the test, Raistlin forgot about his bargain with Fistandantilus. The High Wizards Par-Salian (head of the Conclave) and Antimodes (Raistlin's sponsor in his studies) decided not to tell him, because he could only take advantage of the knowledge if he learned it himself. Thus Raistlin believed that he was crippled in the Test and blamed the Conclave for that.
In the events of Dragons of the Hourglass Mage, it is revealed that
Raistlin first trapped Fistandantilus within the Dragon Orb, then, in their final encounter, killed Fistandantilus by draining the life force with the ruby pendant out of the body Fistandantilus was given by Takhisis.
As a result, Raistlin became more powerful in mind and in body (he stopped coughing and nearly fainting after each spell). This is the Raistlin we see at the end of The Dragons Of The Spring Dawning, where he defeats a number of the Dark Queen's minions and Caramon, wounded, leans on him for support.
In the Legends trilogy,
Raistlin travelled back in time and defeated Fistandantilus again, gaining his life force anew in a similar fashion.
By the time he is about to enter the Abyss, Raistlin is no longer weak and frail.
- The specifics of undead Fistandantilus is not consistent. He is called lich in several occasions, but in some he is referred to as a disembodied spirit.