Was there a human who first escaped the Matrix? How?
His name is unknown:
From the first movie:
MORPHEUS When the Matrix was first built there was a man born inside that had the ability to change what he wanted, to remake the Matrix as he saw fit. It was this man that freed the first of us and taught us the secret of the war; control the Matrix and you control the future.
But this is not exactly the truth. The Architect in the second movie reveals that in fact this is the 6th reboot of the Matrix:
The Architect - Your life is the sum of a remainder of an unbalanced equation inherent to the programming of the matrix. You are the eventuality of an anomaly, which despite my sincerest efforts I have been unable to eliminate from what is otherwise a harmony of mathematical precision. While it remains a burden assiduously avoided, it is not unexpected, and thus not beyond a measure of control. Which has led you, inexorably, here. [...]
The Architect - The matrix is older than you know. I prefer counting from the emergence of one integral anomaly to the emergence of the next, in which case this is the sixth version
So, there was once a first anomaly that awoken from the Matrix, helped to awake more people and built Zion. Then came the second anomaly (or if you prefer "Chosen One") which triggered the destruction of Zion and reset of the Matrix followed again by awaking another humans, rebuilding the city etc...
The Architect - The function of the One is now to return to the source, allowing a temporary dissemination of the code you carry, reinserting the prime program. After which you will be required to select from the matrix 23 individuals, 16 female, 7 male, to rebuild Zion.
Of course, this answer doesn't account the Paradise/Hell versions of the Matrix.