This is a combination of generational shifts in naming fashions, and you picking and choosing your evidence. :)
In the generations that are older than Harry, there are lots of names that don't occur, or are very rare, in the muggle population:
Sirius, Bellatrix, Andromeda, Rodolphus, Xenophilius, Bathilda, Regulus, Mafalda, Bartemius, Mundungus, Marvolo, Merope, Morfin...
Not a Hogwarts professor in the bunch1. Even in Harry's own generation, there are some unusual-for-muggles names: when's the last time you met someone named Nymphadora? Or Lavender, Luna, or Draco? And neither Ginny's full name, Ginevra, nor Hermione, are what you'd call run-of-the-mill.
In the other direction, not all Hogwarts professors have unusual names. The librarian is Irma - old-fashioned, perhaps, but totally mundane. The Muggle Studies professor's first name is Charity, which spiked in popularity in 1970, and hasn't completely tapered off yet. There's a substitute teacher named Wilhelmina, which as a baby name would cause my name-geek sister and her like-minded friends to go into ecstasies of adoration. And while calling a divination professor Sybill is almost too apt, it's still a perfectly normal name (albeit it's usually spelled Sybil).
1 OK, OK, so Barty Crouch Jr. technically taught for a full year before being caught, but that wasn't under his own name.
To try to put numbers behind my opinions, I went through Wikipedia's list of Harry Potter characters and categorized each name as "mundane" or "strange/unique", and then counted how many of each belonged to Harry's generation (roughly) vs. an older generation, and how many of the older generation were Hogwarts professors.
Age group Total Mundane Strange
Kids/teens 54 43 (80%) 11 (20%)
Non-professors 72 26 (36%) 46 (64%)
Professors 28 9 (32%) 19 (68%)
All adults 100 35 (35%) 65 (65%)
The proportion of strange/unique names among Hogwarts professors is slightly higher than in the adult population as a whole, but I wouldn't call it a significant difference.
(My categorization wasn't based on anything other than my knee-jerk reactions to each name, so take all this with a huge grain of salt. Also, note that I only included names of human beings — sorry, Dobby and Griphook —, and excluded muggles like the Dursleys — their naming practices are hardly indicative of wizarding-world practices, after all. However, I included muggle-born wizards, since I figured they'd be equally distributed in all of the groups, so they probably wouldn't skew the results in any particular direction.)