As far as my research has turned up, and given I'm not very good at research, Gambit is the only mutant to kill Wolverine, and him not be able to regenerate. I was wondering if there was another instance, or another generation of X-men that this has happened?
Unless there was a major shift in the Marvel Universe (which their soft reboot may allow since Wolverine is supposed to be weaker than he was previously) Gambit has no chance of effectively killing Wolverine.
Previously, Wolverine's powers of regeneration were so great he could recover from almost any injury which didn't completely atomize his entire physical structure.
Gambit's mutant power allows him to energize normal matter causing it to explode. It takes some time for Gambit's power to energize matter so even if he could affect Wolverine's skeleton he wouldn't just sit still and allow Gambit to use his powers. Wolverine's fighting ability in the past should make him easily the equal of Gambit.
If Wolverine's skeleton were still coated with Adamantium, it would be beyond Gambit's power to affect. Adamantium isn't normal matter and is completely proof against almost all mutant powers except those which can alter reality (Franklin Richards), alter sub-molecular structures (the Phoenix Force) or Omega-level magnetic powers (such as Magneto's).
- This graphic indicates Gambit believes his power could affect Wolverine but we have no knowledge if he has ever tried to use his power on Adamantium before. If canon is to be believe, Wolverine would be unaffected unless Gambit were able to penetrate Wolverine's body with a piece of metal affected by his power.