This is a movie-only occurrence, so you're not likely to find an explanation in the books. All we know from the movies is what's in them, and the shirt is never mentioned. In-universe, in movie canon, there's no known history.
We can use the books to make inferences. We see in this answer about Harry's wealth, that Harry is still poor in the Muggle world, and thus can't purchase Muggle clothing. The Dursleys have no reason or inclination to buy him anything other than what he needs.
One can surmise then, that Harry has a limited amount of Muggle clothing, and wears the same outfits all the time because he has no other options.
As far as where the shirt came from, I can only speculate that it was one of the few things the Dursleys actually bought him, or perhaps someone with access to Muggle money, such as Hermione, gifted it to him.
It's possible Harry could exchange his Wizarding money for Muggle money, but that would require Harry to come up with an explanation to the Dursleys as to how he's getting the money, or the things the money buys.
An aside: The t-shirt you see in those three images are not the same, although they are all ringer tees with a light-blue base and dark-blue rings. The style is common--I've personally owned two such shirts, no connection to Harry Potter--and cheap--I got mine from Old Navy, a known low-cost clothing store in the USA.