This is a community wiki answer, so feel free to add to it or make corrections.
From the website that is selling the poster:
Presenting iam8bit's Space Worlds Map, a painstakingly researched poster print that merges together over 70 popular planetary destinations and 50+ vessels/characters into one beautiful, gigantic map. Inspiration comes from a variety of sources - movies, TV shows, books, comics, animation - but despite their origins, everything happily co-exists in this insanely epic artwork by illustrator Edison Yan.
Numbers are used to identify large vessels, generally put in the top-left corner of the vessels bounding box.
Letters are used to identify characters and smaller vessels.
- Dark Star - Dark Star?
- Red Dwarf - Red Dwarf
- The Delorean - Back to the Future
- Battlestar Galactica - Battlestar Galactica (2004 series)
- Gunstar One - The Last Starfighter
- Comet Observatory - Mario Galaxy
- Alien invasion craft - Independence Day? Visitor Ships - V?
- Sulaco - Aliens
- Kodan Armada - The Last Starfighter
- Gundam - Possibly RX-78-2 or ZGMF-X42S Destiny?
- TARDIS - Doctor Who
- U.S.S. Cygnus - The Black Hole
- Event Horizon - Event Horizon
- United Space Cruiser C-57D - Forbidden Planet
- Galaga - Galaga
- Yamato - Space Battleship Yamato 2199
- Death Star II - Star Wars Episode VI The Return of the Jedi
- Borg Cube - Star Trek
- Jupiter 2 - Lost in Space
- Millennium Falcon - Star Wars
- Planet Express ship, AKA Old Bessie - Futurama
- Deep Space Nine - Deep Space Nine
- Heart of Gold - Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
- U.S.S. Enterprise, NCC-1701 - Star Trek (original series)
- Hermes - The Martian
- Citadel - Mass Effect
- Cosmic Ark - Cosmic Ark
- Mark I Colonial Viper - Battlestar Galactica
- Alien Mothership - Close Encounters of the Third Kind
- Axiom - Wall-E
- Restaurant at the End of the Universe - HHGTTG?1
- Babylon 5 - Babylon 5
- Thunder Road - Explorers (1985)
- TCS Lexington - Wing Commander
- Enemy Base - Bosconian
- Narcissus - Alien
- Serenity - Firefly
- Alpha 7 - Barbarella
- Voltron - Voltron: Defender of the Universe
- SDF-1 Macross - The Super Dimension Fortress Macross
- Moya - Farscape
- A. Great A'Tuin - Discworld
- B. Podracers - Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace
- C. Podracer, Left & Sebulba's Podracer, Right - Star Wars Episode I The Phantom Menace
- D. Robby the Robot - Forbidden Planet
- E. Space Invaders - Space Invaders
- F. Whale - ?2
- G. Star Furies - Babylon 5?
- H. Another Star Fury - Babylon 5?
- I. Little Dipper School - The Jetsons
- J. EVE - Wall-E
- K. Ultraman 80 - Ultraman 80
- L. Cthulhu - Works of H.P. Lovecraft
- M. ?
- N. ?
- O. Starfuries - Babylon 5
- P. ?
- Q. Starchild - 2001: A Space Odyssey
- R. Gonzo - Muppets from Space
- S. Cosmic Fish - Muppets from Space
1 Based on the logo on the restaurant's sign, which matches the cover of the book.
2 Obviously some sort of whale; it looks like a Humpback or Blue Whale. This trope is common enough to have it's own page on T.V. Tropes. Examples include a Sperm Whale in HHGTTG, several species in various Star Trek media, "Star Whales" and similar creatures in Doctor Who, a four dimensional "Möbius Dick" in Futurama, Ruari Robinson's pitch-short for a proposed film called Leviathan, and many more. We need help figuring out exactly which whale (possibly none of the above mentioned examples) the artist had in mind.
Edit: The artist, Edison Yan, graciously provided me with this list:
However, their list in incomplete, or unclear. Some items are formatted to say only "Ship", and some don't clearly state the IP they're from.
Of those that are unique enough, Yvaine is the only one from the artist's list yet to be included in the master list. Unfortunately, there's still more ships to be named in the master list.