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In the Marvel comic books we know that Celestials intervened and created the "X-Gene," do we know exactly how? And with what technology? Or is it never stated? Are non-Celestials able to create the X-Gene?

I am aware significant characters such as The Stranger and Apocalypse have been able to tamper with already developed mutant genomes, does that mean other mutants can potentially be created by non-Celestials? (I know that the writers are not genetic experts so many things contradict themselves.)

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As far as the Marvel Universe is concerned, all metahuman potential mutations are the result of Celestial manipulations of the genetic materials of intelligent species all over the Universe.

There are many known species whose genomes were manipulated by the Celestials. The Celestials seem to create three genetic lines on their test planets:

  • a long-lived, highly stable, physically robust version of the base lifeform; on Earth, they were dubbed Eternals.

  • A powerful but variable genetic form which over millennia can stabilize; these are called Deviants. On Earth, no two Deviants look alike.

  • The third lifeform is the baseline creature usually including the genetic capacity for mutation but designed to reach it through genetic recombination. On Earth, these are normal, non-mutant people who have the potential for mutants to form.

This experimentation was done all over the galaxy, including a number of the significant species known to Earth, including:

The Kree:

  • The Kree plateaued early and became supremely uniform due to socialized hatred of mutation. As a result their genome stabilized and they lost the genetic potential for metahuman mutation.

  • While their genome is quite robust by human standards, giving every member of the species incredible strength, speed and stamina in excess of even Captain America's genetic perfection, they have lost the ability for extremes of genetic mutation.

  • The Kree realizing this over 60,000 years ago Earth time, they traveled around the galaxy performing experiments to see if they could induce genetic transformation using Celestial manipulations done on other species and bring the genetic capacity back to the Kree. One of those experiments resulted in the Inhumans on Earth and created the Terregenesis process over 40,000 years ago.

The Skrulls:

  • The Skrulls were the Deviant evolutionary line on their planet and thus acquired a powerful shapechanging ability and with technological manipulation, the ability to graft metahuman potential on specialized members of their culture. These genetically altered Skrulls are given the designation of Super-Skrulls.

    • Given the success of the Deviant line of Skrulls it is safe to assume the other lines did not survive except as the genetic potential to graft powers to certain members of the Skrull line. Random mutation also appears to be quite rare in Skrulls as well.

The Shiar

  • The Shiar appear to have taken a similar path the Kree did, stabilizing their species into an advanced form with very limited mutation overall being stronger, faster and more durable than humans.

  • The Shiar very rarely mutate but if they do, they tend to revert to more powerful and savage versions of their species. Deathbird is an example of an evolutionary call-back and mutant of the Shiar species.

The Dire Wraiths

  • If there are any Dire Wraiths still around out in the Universe, the shape-changing Dire Wraiths were the Deviant strain of their species. The Dire Wraiths were able to take the shape of creatures they came in contact with and some members of the species (particularly the females) were capable of extensive magical capabilities.

  • Of the other two strains of Dire Wraiths, little if anything, is known about their ultimate fates.

Homo Sapiens Sapiens

  • Earth is very rare in that all three subspecies of Humanity are still active and reproducing (in the case of the Eternals and Deviants, far slower than mainline humanity) on the same planet of their origin.

  • The Eternals are still active on Earth and on the moon of Saturn, Titan.

  • The Deviants are still active in their underground civilization of Lemuria.
  • Humanity is still active across the planet Earth, with a reduced capacity for mutation thanks to the sorcery of the Scarlet Witch backed by the power of Cthon.
  • In addition, a small group of test experiments which were performed by the Kree, called the Inhumans are still active on Earth.

  • With the release of the Terrigenesis bombs on Earth, any Inhuman DNA still in the general populace has become active resulting in the first population boom of Inhumans in recorded history.

Celestial Genetics™

  • As to the Celestial genetic technology, no one has been able to recreate it from whole cloth and several individuals such as the Stranger, Mister Sinister and Apocalypse have tried for millennia to duplicate it without success.

  • However, all three have had varying degrees of success with manipulating active or semiactive mutant genetics activating, improving or enhancing mutant abilites in a number of ways.

  • They aren't the only beings known to experiment with such technologies. Others include: The High Evolutionary, the Beehive (responsible for creating Him and Her - later known as Adam Warlock and Kismet), and Advanced Idea Mechanics.

  • Despite their various tampering, none of them have learned how to create exactly the powers they want and are almost always actively experimenting with mutants and mutation in a quest to gain power through the manipulation of the Celestial genetic technology.

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