In Star Wars: The Force Awakens, we run into our old friend C-3PO:
Goodness! Han Solo! It is I, SeeThreepio!
You probably don't recognize me because of the red arm.
Look who it is! Did you see who? Oh. Excuse me, Prin-- uh, General. Sorry. Come along, BB-8. Quickly. (BB-8 beeps)
Yes, I must get my proper arm reinstalled.
For some reason, he has a red left arm. However, the situation/reasons behind how he got this red arm is glossed over.
Is it just a fresh coat of paint on his old arm? A salvaged part from another (presumably destroyed) Protocol droid? A newly manufactured arm that is able to perform more/different functions?