According to canon, was there any off world fame to go along with Anakin's feats of building his own Podracer, being the only human to successfully Podrace, and being the the only human to win the Boonta Eve Classic?
Within the main (Disney) canon, there are no further mentions of the podrace. That being said, the official novelisation for Revenge of the Sith gives us some additional info about our Jedi heroes. Apparently they've become quite famous. It's certainly possible that this includes knowledge of Anakin's early racing prowess:
Younglings across the galaxy know their names, know everything about them, follow their exploits as though they are sports heroes instead of warriors in a desperate battle to save civilization. Even grown-ups are not immune; it’s not uncommon for an exasperated parent to ask, when faced with offspring who have just tried to pull off one of the spectacularly dangerous bits of foolishness that are the stockin-trade of high-spirited younglings everywhere, So which were you supposed to be, Kenobi or Skywalker?
Moving down the canon scale, there's a mention in Tatooine Ghost that footage of the race is still on sale on Tatooine some 30 years later:
Then they stopped at a booth containing several pieces of refined sculpture and half a dozen imagist gleaminks depicting Tatooine landscapes. Leia was particularly taken with a depiction of an approaching sand squall and an empty sandrock basin tided The Last Lake. Then she came to a single, oversized holocube.
The image was of a sandy-haired boy of perhaps nine or ten, standing in front of an old Podracer cockpit with a pair of goggles down around his neck and both arms raised high over his head. The joy in his grin was as contagious as it was innocent-he was clearly pretending he had just won a big race-but that was not what captured Leia's attention.
There was something about those eyes that compelled her to stand there and stare, to forget the presence of Han and the vendor and simply look. They were Luke's eyes, Leia realized. They were the same radiant blue, they had the same depth and softness as her brother's, and - most of all - they had a quiet intensity that burned as brightly as the twin suns themselves.