There is a clear empirical answer (at the least an estimate) of the enormous cost of such travel.
The Baron sighed. "I give you different instructions about Arrakis this time, Nephew. When last you ruled this place, I held you in strong rein. This time, I have only one requirement."
"Have you any idea, Rabban, how much we spent to bring such military force to bear on the Atreides? Do you have even the first inkling of how much the Guild charges for military transport?"
The Baron shot a fat arm toward Rabban. "If you squeeze Arrakis for every cent it can give us for sixty years, you'll just barely repay us!"
Rabban opened his mouth, closed it without speaking.
"Expensive," the Baron sneered. "The damnable Guild monopoly on space would've ruined us if I hadn't planned for this expense long ago. You should know, Rabban, that we bore the entire brunt of it. We even paid for transport of the Sardaukar."
Dune pg. 237
First note the use of the common term cent above, Mr. Herbert appears to have carried this into the Dune-universe. There is another piece of evidence in Heretics of Dune to get a gauge of the worth of a solari, consider the conversation between Lucilla and Sirafa.
"That is not a concern. You must never act as though you recognize such distinctions. Your first concern is to make sure of your pay. You, I think, should ask fifty solari."
Sirafa produced a small pouch from her bodice and passed it to Lucilla, who hefted it in one hand. "That contains two hundred and eighty-three solari. If someone identifying himself as a divine... You remember that? Divine?"
"Very well. If a divine interrupts, I return one hundred solari to Skar and -"
"I think not, Sirafa." Lucilla shook her head slowly from side to side. "After being entertained by me, the divine will know that fifty solari is too small a sum."
This analysis gives the rough estimate 1 solari = 1 USD (at least in 1960-70's currency) when the books were written.
Let us couple this with the fact that Melange is easily the most expensive commodity in history. And the fact that, that commodity has to be harvested for sixty years to repay the cost of a single military expedition.
Further than this we will be in speculation. But if we know the GDP of Arrakis in USD circa 1970's it's simple arithmetic to estimate the cost of that one ill-fated expedition to Arrakis. Let
Global GDP (1970) rounded down = $12 trillion multiply by 60 = $720 trillion (solari).
There is a subtle flaw in this argument, it assume a constant linear GDP of $12 trillion over the entire 60 year period. This is typically not the case, assuming a nominal 1% annual GDP increase leads to the horrendous cost of $4,069 trillion that's four quadrillion solari. (I used an Excel sheet and multiplied successive cells by 1.01)
On the surface this would seem a error on Mr. Herbert's part, perhaps he simply picked sixty out of thin air, except for two things.
Piter describing the computational ability of the Barron:
"They were toys compared to me," Piter snarled. "You yourself, Baron, could outperform those machines."
Dune pg. 18
Mr. Herbert describes his very careful sentence construction:
Well, this was done deliberately to control that oral pace by the length of sentence, by the variety of sentence, by the words in the sentence, whether long convoluted words or short chopping words…
Frank Herbert and his wife, Beverly (3 February 1969) interview with Professor Willis E. McNelly