What you are referring to is known as an ecumenopolis, which is a planet-spanning city. in Legends canon, there are a multitude of other examples of this, which include Nar Shaddaa and Taris, among numerous others.
Of these, Nar Shaddaa, the moon of the Hutts' heavily polluted homeworld Nal Hutta, is probably the best known in the expanded universe, appearing in several dozen works.
Nar Shaddaa was the largest moon of Nal Hutta. More commonly known as the Vertical City, the Smugglers' Moon and Little Coruscant, Nar Shaddaa was similar to Coruscant in that its surface was entirely overgrown with city sprawl for millennia. But unlike Coruscant—which was only relatively rundown and dangerous on the lower and under levels of the world city—Nar Shaddaa was filthy, polluted, and infested with crime everywhere.
Per JasonBaker's comment, both Taris and Nar Shaddaa appear in the Disney universe, but not enough to confirm if either are an ecumenopolis. I'm not aware of any other examples in the revised Disney canon, but I wouldn't be surprised to see one pop up at some point.