I think the chances that the production team is dropping hints about major plot points via hairstyles is highly unlikely, but just barely plausible.
If we look back at another crucial Star Wars plot point related to parentage, we see quite clearly that secrecy was the top priority for the writers, director, and producers. Before the release of The Empire Strikes Back, the only people who knew that Vader was Luke's father were George Lucas, Gary Kurtz, and Mark Hamill (and presumably writer Lawrence Kasdan and director Irvin Kershner, and later, James Earl Jones), and even Mark Hamill was only told about it moments before filming the iconic "I am your father" scene. The actor inside the Darth Vader suit, David Prowse, didn't learn that Vader was Luke's father until he saw the movie at the premiere screening.
Given the secrecy maintained by those in the know during ESB, and indeed, the incredible levels of secrecy Abrams managed to keep in place prior to the release of TFA, it seems extremely unlikely that the people in charge decided to give away their equivalent of "I am your father" via a few twists of hair.
So no, there is no evidence that The Force Awakens is using hairdos to hint at Rey's origins, but we do know of a somewhat similar instance in which the (out-of-universe) parentage of a character (or rather, an actor) is alluded to through the medium of a familiar coif:
That's Billie Lourd on the left, as she appears (as Lieutenant Connix) in The Force Awakens, rocking the signature double-side-bun style made famous by her real-world mom, Carrie Fisher. So although we'll have to wait until the next movie is released to find out more about Rey's family ties, we can definitively state that - in at least one instance - the producers are trying to tell us something through a character's hairstyle.
Note: This probably goes without saying, but I'll say it anyway - there isn't any obvious, logical way that Rey could have deliberately styled her hair after Padmé's (barring the inadvertent use of the Force), because Luke and Leia spent a whopping total of about 45 seconds in Padmé's company, and neither seems to have had any pictures of their mother. Rey was born decades later, and we don't know how much she knows about her parents, or whether the information she does have - however much or little that may be - is accurate. In any case, it is impossible to imagine her being aware that she's Padmé's granddaughter, and therefore deciding to copy her long-dead grandmother's hairdo. And of course, we have no real reason to believe that Rey is related to Padmé in any way.