One of Keith Laumer's Retief books (I'm pretty sure it was "Retief and the Warlords", published 1978) has a character use an alien drug that ended up temporarily making him super fast (like fast enough everything else stands still).
I think the drug was originally supposed to give him a slight edge, maybe think or react a bit quicker - but obviously had an exaggerated reaction cross-species. I believe he uses it to compete in an arena, and later race over terrain to mess with an army (not specifically recalling a maze, but it could be).
I realize super smart is not the same thing as super fast, but the character is also portrayed as pretty much a genius, out thinking and out plotting others in the series, and he does use the drug to navigate scenarios where he could not have done otherwise - and the scenario sounded similar enough to me I thought it was worth offering as an outside possibility. I hope you find it.