Finn does not know many details about the Starkiller Base,
He only knows the 'base'-ics.
The Starkiller base is the size of a planet, it would not be uncommon for anyone on it to know where major points of interest are, such as Central Command or a Thermal Oscillator, just like you know where Canada or Australia are on our planet.
Finn also mentions that he helped build it, and if he worked in sanitation he must have seen maps to get around to clean specific places.
He did not know how to disable the shields, he needed a higher up, Captain Phasma to disable the shields for him. So he did not know very many details regarding the base such as codes.
In the attack plan, the Resistance are talking about how they need to blow up the Thermal Oscillator, all Finn does is point to it and arbitrarily say there will be enemy fighters.
I think Finn just happened to know the right amount of information to help the Resistance, but no great amount of details above his rank.