I'm trying to find a book I remember reading a long time ago. In it the main character could teleport or "cast" objects. A few of the details I remember (here's hoping I don't have multiple books mixed in my mind): Teleporters could cast 1000 kg and not a bit more. They had to go to a school to learn to compensate for momentum differences between the start and the target location. The main character ran into someone who called themselves an 'anchor' who could block the teleportation. They got past the anchor by teleporting drugs meant for him directly into the anchor. I think there was a part at the beginning about someone who seemed to be in withdrawal finding him as a baby by following a ringing noise and saying he had 'rung a gold' or something like that. The guy seemed to recover once he hung around the boy and trained him. That last part could be a different book however...
Kevin O'Donnell's series "The Journeys of McGill Feighan".
"Caverns" is the first book in a (currently) four book series by Mr. O'Donnell. As the title implies, the focus is on a character named McGill Feighan. In this first book, the origin of McGill and the start of his adventerous life is revealed. "Caverns" is at first a light-hearted read, but you soon find yourself drawn into the life of the hero, his triumphs and despair. McGill is a "flinger", a person who can teleport anything (himself, other people, things) anywhere that he's been before. But even for a flinger, he does not lead a normal life due to unusual events in his life, when he was a newborn. Much of the story revolves around McGill's growing-up and learning to deal with his powers, as well as the assortment of people and aliens that take an interest in his life (both good and bad).
You can find a review that covers more of the plot points here. It doesn't mention the drunken flinger who finds him, but as I recall it correctly, you have the right phrase for him. I'll check my copy when I get home.
Ah, and indeed, the "rung a gold" is close.
"Mort." He giggled. "Mort, I've change-rung a gold!"
Retired flingers become increasingly psychically sensitive. Finding another new flinger reduces their pain somewhat, which is part of why they stick around to train them.