So, right out of the gate, beginning of the second chapter, a drunk that Alex assaults says the following:

"What sort of a world is it at all? Men on the moon and men spinning round the earth like it might be midges round a lamp, and there's not no attention paid to earthly law nor order no more."

And shortly after, there's an exchange between Alex and Dim:

But poor old Dim kept looking up at the stars and planets and the Luna with his rot wide open like a kid who'd never viddied [seen] any such thing before, and he said: "What's on them, I wonder. What would be up there on things like that?"

I nudged him hard, saying: "Come, gloopy [stupid] bastard as thou art. Think thou not on them. There'll be life like down here most likely, with some getting knifed and others doing the knifing."

So, this and a handful of other references in the book imply that space travel became commonplace in the future, at least more than it was at the time of publishing. But in this exchange Alex takes it one step further and implies that there are active societies in space and that they're established enough to have petty street crime.

My question is: How literal was Alex being in this conversation?

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    My Nadsat is somewhat rusty, but I would not interpret the second quote to imply that mankind has settled other planets. Rather, it’s the classical “I wonder what alien life is like” conversation that you could as well have anywhen in the last century in reality.
    – Wrzlprmft
    Feb 14 '16 at 8:01

In short, we aren't given any indication that space travel has moved on much beyond the state of the art in 1962 when the book was published.

Yuri Gagarin's manned space flight had taken place in 1961 so the reference to men spinning around the Earth was based on current affairs rather than speculation. Of course man didn't land on the moon until 1969 but JFK had publicly announced the intention of the United States to launch a moon mission. It wouldn't have been much of a logical leap for Burgess to assume that, spurred by competition with the Soviets, this goal might be achieved in the next decade or so.

Alex and Dim's conversation in your second quote is clearly speculative rather than based on any actual planetary exploration. Alex is mocking Dim's curiosity while expressing his own cynical view that if there were alien life out there it would be just as violent and degraded as him and his droogs.

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