There may be earlier works, yet I will offer up the short story "Stranglehold" by Christopher Anvil, published June 1966 and part of the "Interstellar Patrol" series.
This story focuses on the prerequisites of science or magic arising in a culture, and theorizes as to why they are incompatible. It may not be the first, but it is earlier than the 1983 story quoted in the question, sprang to my mind quickly as an example of this idea being explored (and well), and gives a time for any other answers to beat.
Another possibility is the Lord Darcy series, which had stories being published around the same time, with the earliest story, "The Eyes Have It" first published in 1964. This one has an alternate history, where magic and magical theory arose instead of science and scientific theory. There is much less focus on the how and why they are incompatible, but the idea (that they are both culturally and physically) does come across in the stories.
The idea itself is likely much older, as VapedCrusader mentions in their comment it may have originated in the symbolism of cold iron (man made, man worked, some of the oldest technologies) as an effective protection against magic. There are works which might mention that people of science don't believe in magic (I thought of Dracula, in 1897, where the disbelief in magic by the science minded is a plot point), or the reverse, or stories which simply assume use of one precludes the other. Or stories where it does not.
I chose to offer these stories as examples because they deliberately acknowledge and explore the idea that Magic or Technology preclude the other, and wonders why. And also because I thought of them when I saw the question. It also gives anyone with other answers some concrete benchmark to beat in offering other stories