I can't point to any specific literature, but I remember reading of it years ago, so I'm pretty certain there's a distinction between both types of flying craft in the Star Wars universe. What's the difference with regards to how aircraft fly in the air and spacecraft fly in space?
According to Legends sources, most flying craft in the Star Wars universe incorporate anti-grav technology known as "repulsorlifts" to keep airborne when they don't otherwise have sufficient aerodynamic lift. Although the name "repulsorlift" does not appear in the films, their existence is evident in all of the films. A lot of that old information is no longer canon, but the term "repulsorlift" appears in James Luceno's Tarkin (which unfortunately is canon), so they are still the canon explanation for how landspeeders fly.
We see countless vehicles flying without the types of wings that would give them lift (in fact, off the top of my head, I can't think of a single flying vehicle that has proper wings for atmospheric flight in any of the films). Luke's landspeeder obviously uses anti-grav technology - it remains hovering in the air even when it's stationary. X-Wings and Y-Wings are shown hovering out of their hangers before launch in ANH and ESB. Jaba's sail barge and skiffs float ponderously through the Tatooine dunes and are also shown to hover in place.
There is very little actual difference between how spacecraft and landspeeders/airspeeders fly in atmosphere. They typically use repulsorlifts to generate lift, and thrusters/engines to achieve forward acceleration. Spacecraft can presumably use their main drives for acceleration in the atmosphere just like they do in space, although I believe I remember reading that ion engines are hazardous to use in atmosphere and are not supposed to be used anywhere near a spaceport. Groundcraft are likely to use turbines or thrusters instead of ion drives for their forward acceleration, but the general principle - repulsors push you up, engines move you forward - remains the same.
The basic out of universe explanation is that there are two main forces an aircraft in atmospheric flight must overcome in order to stay airborn: Gravity and Drag.
1) They overcome gravity with lift. Lift is created by high and low pressure air traveling across the upper and lower surfaces of the wings and fuselage.
2) They overcome drag (air resistance) with engine thrust propelling the airframe forward through ever increasing air resistance as velocity increases. This resistance is also in relation to altitude (air density).
These forces do not exist in space.
In universe: Tie fighters would need either MASSIVE thrust engines in order to overcome both lift and drag issues for such a non-aerodynamic design...or... they have some type of antigravity device designed to overcome gravity's pull and a drag reducing device designed to radically reduce/eliminate atmospheric drag. Through deductive reasoning and because they aren't flying fuel tanks attached to huge engines, I suspect the latter would be the case. Due to the fuel consumption costs required for the massively powerful engines' thrust needed, the former option would be wildly impractical. I'm sure there is or will be a name for these devices but I have yet to find them.