According to BBC America, the titles are inspired by the works of Donna Haraway, Distinguished Professor Emerita in the History of Consciousness Department and Feminist Studies Department at the University of California
All of the titles were taken directly (or inspired by) various elements of her seminal works;
As to why such an eclectic author was chosen, the writers of the show were apparently heavily influenced by her writings when they were trying to understand how the moral and ethical implications of human cloning would impact on their (female) lead character's personal development:
Many years ago when Graeme was conceiving and developing the ideas for Orphan Black he asked me what kinds of works — not other works of science fiction, but rather historical or philosophical texts — I would personally read, recommend, and use to think about clones and a feminist approach to science (and science fiction) more generally. The first that came to mind at the time was an essay by biologist and philosopher of science Donna Haraway called “A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century” It was, and still is, one of my favorites. To be honest, I didn’t actually think he’d read it, but sure enough her book now sits on his shelf, proudly dog-eared and worn.
According to Haraway, “A cyborg is a cybernetic [feedback controlled] organism, a hybrid of machine and organism, a creature of social reality as well as a creature of fiction. Social reality is lived social relations, our most important political construction, a world-changing fiction. […] The cyborg is a matter of fiction and lived experience that changes what counts as women’s experience in the late twentieth century. […] Contemporary science fiction is full of cyborgs — creatures simultaneously animal and machine, who populate worlds ambiguously natural and crafted. Modern medicine is also full of cyborgs, of couplings between organism and machine, each conceived as coded devices, in an intimacy and with a power that was not generated in the history of sexuality.”