Fëanor embodied the fire aspect of the Noldor.
Fire, or an affinity with fire is used by Tolkien to denote construction, particularly the construction of artifacts, or modification of one's environment, metaphorically or otherwise.
Fire is also seen to represent rebellion, and indeed one only needs to look to the "Flight of the Noldor" to see how similar in thinking Morgoth and Fëanor are.
Fëanor, the Noldor, Morgoth, Sauron,Saruman and Gandalf all are linked with being facile with fire, as well as having the classical aspects associated with fire, quick to anger, emotionality, confrontation, and charisma. I would expect Fëanor to defeat Fingolfin in any kind of duel, and if any mortal creature could defeat a Vala, Fëanor would have been the one.
In fact, it can be defined as victory for a mortal creature to cause an immortal one eternal suffering. Fingolfin achieved this. Fëanor is a much more capable creature, and would be expected to be able to inflict more damage. He would have died doing this, but that certainly beats suffering for millennia from the aftereffects of the battle.