I've researched a lot and didn't found many logos for Jedi ranks. This is list of ranks I found, but not many logos.
Before we begin, two disclaimers:
The chart presented in the question is a fan construction, with only minimal support from Star Wars lore. Although there were a wide variety of Jedi and Sith ranks in Legends material, the rigid hierarchy implied in the question simply didn't exist. Likewise, there's no unified rank structure for "Grey Jedi" in Legends, because the Grey Jedi were not a formal organization, but rather a catch-all term for a large number of disparate groups.
Everything below is Legends only; to the best of my knowledge, no rank-specific logos or insignia have migrated to canon, with the exception of the Youngling logo described in the answers below.
Insignia - of a sort - for the core Jedi ranks are given in The Jedi Path: A Manual for Students of the Force:
It's worth pointing out that each insignia is a character in Aurebesh, the Star Wars in-universe alphabet; they correspond, in order, to the Aurebesh characters for "I", "P", "K", and "M". It seems a little odd to call these "insignia", and it's not clear how (or if) they're used in-universe, but there you go.
Later on, insignia are also given for the four branches of the Jedi Service corps:
As well, at least six of the Youngling "clans" all have logos1:
1 Thame and Ahsoka's margin notes indicate that other clans exist, and the text itself confirms this (emphasis mine):
These and the Temple's other clans are the roots of the tree that sustains us as an Order.
The Jedi Path: A Manual for Students of the Force Part 2: "Jedi Initiate" Chapter 1: "Joining a Clan"
The logos for these other clans, if they exist, are not recorded in this book.
Having skimmed through the Wookieepeadia's article on Jedi Order, it appears that only younglings have their own symbol. It was apparently introduced in the episode 6 of season 5 of Clone Wars, titled "The Gathering". The corresponding entry on the official Star Wars website provides an image:
To address some of the comments, this does not appear to be an official Star Wars chart.
The Jedi Order has the following listed ranks:
- Grand Master