I'm aware of a number of stories that follow the theme of an artificial creation that causes havoc.
Colossus: The Forbin Project (Film, 1970)
A supercomputer (Colossus) is given total control over the United States nuclear arsenal to insure a quick and efficient retaliation in case of a Russian first strike. Unfortunately, the Russians also have a supercomputer (Guardian) and the two link up and start communicating. Eventually the combined intelligences rule the world.
Metropolis (Film, 1927)
A robot is created to impersonate a rabble-rousing girl and undermine the revolutionaries.
R.U.R. (Film, 1921) Artificial workers (first use of the term 'robots') rebel against their masters.
Frankenstein by Mary Shelly (Novel, 1818) An artificial humanoid turns against his creator
The Golem of Chelm (Book by Rabbi Jacob Emden, 1776) Describes how a Kabbalist creates a golem in the 15th century to do hard work and protect him. The master grows concerned by the continued growth of the golem. Fearing it may eventually destroy all of Creation, he removes the holy words that animate it, but it strikes out just before turning to dust and injures him, scarring his face.