What are the major technical differences between the Enterprise NCC-1701 (TOS) and NCC-1701 (Abrams)? I don't recall TOS engineering looking like a sterile brewery or having a large transparent water pipe with those ridiculous blender blades. Did they both have balls? Are there technical manuals for both ships?

I'm not looking for an exhaustive list as it would likely be too broad. I just want major differences to try and determine if Abrams' NCC-1701 is more advanced than TOS' NCC-1701 and by how much. I prefer any in-universe answers but will accept out-of-universe explanations.