He probably did
On Starkiller base, Kylo senses the presence of Han, as you said:
Put every hangar on lock-down. She's
going to try to steal a ship to--
Suddenly, Kylo senses something. Something familiar.
KYLO REN (CONT'D):
I'm not sure we can conclude that he didn't sense Han on Takodana, though. In particular, he might already have know Han was there if he saw the Millenium Falcon.
Even if he had known Han was on Takodana, any attempt he might have made at that point
to kill him
would have been hindered by the arrival of the Resistance forces. His priority was to take Rey and find out what she knew about the map.
By contrast, on Starkiller base he was surrounded by allies, and thus could give priority to
killing his father.
Just because we don't see him noticing Han's presence onscreen, doesn't mean he didn't. It was simply more plot-relevant to show it later.
In addition, when Kylo was on Takodana he might have been distracted by his desire to capture Rey, which could have distracted him from Han's presence.