Are there any chemicals known to be able to corrode or dissolve mithril in Lord of the Rings?
We don't know
It's never explored in any writings. One thing we know is that it doesn't tarnish:
Its beauty was like to that of common silver, but the beauty of mithril did not tarnish or grow dim.
Fellowship of the Ring Book II Chapter 4: "A Journey in the Dark"
Since tarnish is just a fine layer of corrosion, we can conclude that it at least is not corroded by any chemical present in the air. Beyond that, we just don't know.