Harry certainly thought so
But though gashes appeared in their sodden rags and their icy skin,
they had no blood to spill: They walked on, unfeeling, their shrunken
hands outstretched toward him, and as he backed away still farther, he
felt arms enclose him from behind, thin, fleshless arms cold as death,
and his feet left the ground as they lifted him and began to carry
him, slowly and surely, back to the water, and he knew there would be
no release, that he would be drowned, and become one more dead
guardian of a fragment of Voldemort’s shattered soul....
—Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
We know that Voldemort must originally have placed a great number of Inferi in the lake, since Regulus Black and Kreacher were the only individuals who likely learned of its location. As indicated in the previous quote, Harry seems to believe that anyone who dies in the cave will also become an Inferi.
However, to my knowledge, there is no evidence of this other than Harry's personal speculation. We know that the vast majority of the corpses were homeless Muggles whose disappearance Voldemort presumably thought would go unnoticed, along with a few witches and wizards who had gotten on his bad side. According to this article, referencing a now-defunct Pottermore page:
“The Inferi whom Harry and Dumbledore encounter in the depth of the
lake in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince were, when alive,
mostly vagrant, homeless Muggles whom Voldemort had murdered for the
purpose during his first rise to power, although some were the earthly
remains of wizards or witches who ‘disappeared’ without explanation.”
Harry presumably lacks the magical knowledge to know whether there is a spell on the lake that will resurrect those who die there as Inferi. Dumbledore undoubtedly would know, but he did not mention how the Inferi came to be there.
Harry's intepretation is certainly a plausible one, but it may not be true.