Translation convention that's been around forever: when you see two characters who logically should be speaking another language in that given situation, unless specifically otherwise indicated assume they are speaking in that language and you're just watching a translated version of the conversation.
Star Trek is probably the best example. When you see two Klingons holding a conversation, you assume they're really speaking in Klingon. Star Trek Discovery played with that. For pretty much the entire first season, the actors playing the Klingons spoke actual Klingon (with English/other subtitles), however, the idea that Klingons are being translated is so ingrained in viewers that when they did speak English, it was specifically pointed out they were. So when L'Rell has a conversation with a captured Lorca, he pointedly makes a comment about her fluency in English. When Kol captures Admiral Cornwell, he speaks in heavily accented, somewhat halting English to make it clear he's really speaking English, not Klingon.
Later on, when Burnham faces off against Kol, they show her using her communicator to translate: she says something in English, the communicator provides simultaneous interpretation in Klingon. Kol says something in Klingon, the communicator spits it out in English. Once that's done, she puts the communicator down and Kenneth Mitchell and Sonequa Martin-Green start chewing the scenery in English, and the communicator isn't heard from again, but the audience understands that it is still the way they're talking to (well, yelling at and taunting) each other.
In the second season, there's a bit where L'Rell address the High Council in Klingon with English subtitles...but then the subtitles morph from English into Klingon as she starts talking in English, clearly indicating she's "really" talking Klingon. They also show the Klingons talking to each other in the traditional "It's English, but we really know it's Klingon" Star Trek manner.
For another version, The Hunt For Red October. The sub's crew is talking in Russian at the beginning of the film until the famous scene where the political officer is reading a Biblical passage, in Russian, that ends with the word "Armageddon" (which is the same as Russian and English), and then continues reading in English. It's clearly to indicate that from then on, when we see the Soviet crews speaking English, we understand they're really speaking Russian.
Later in the film, when the boarding party from the USS Dallas meet the defecting Russian officers, the two groups sort of stare at each other until one of the Russians makes a comment that Ryan laughs at and interprets for the other Americans, at which point Ramius reveals he speaks English. After that, when Ramius is talking to the Americans, one assumes he's speaking English, and when Ryan is talking to the defectors, he's "really" speaking Russian.