The Alien Queen made first appearance in the Aliens movie. Although originally, it was intended for xenomorph individuals to convert victims into eggs, this idea was cut from the Alien movie and was later replaced by the Queen and the Hive concepts.
It's however unclear to me how a Queen is produced. As the concept is heavily inspired by social insects I would expect that some facehuggers are made to carry the queen breed. But then this sounds quite risky given how weak facehuggers are alone and how much they rely on chance when looking for victims.
Was the origin of Xenomorph queen ever explained? In the AvP games, a very successful Alien would become a Queen, but I doubt that was canon.