In the original (1987) Robocop movie, they use Alex Murphy's body to make Robocop.
What organic body parts did he retain?
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Alex Murphy is subject to a total replacement of his body.
Tyler: [while creating RoboCop] We were able to save the left arm.
Bob Morton: What? I thought we agreed on total body prosthesis. Now, lose the arm, okay?
Assuming Robocop 2 is a good indicator, he probably also kept some of the nervous structure attached to the spine.
I know people don't tend to dwell on "RoboCop 3," but that film does shed a little light on the topic with Dr. Lazarus confirming that portions of his brain were implemented and referring to both the cerebrum and cerebellum by name albeit only portions of both were used.
There also seems to be some contradiction in the series regarding his face. The original film really gives no explanation which can imply, quite disturbingly, that the actual face was somehow sheered off the body and placed. That would explain why he still has the bullet wound in his forehead. And again in "RoboCop 3," Dr. Lazarus lists it among the brain components as what was used of Murphy...referring to it as "what's left of his face."
However in "RoboCop 2," there's a scene between RoboCop and Murphy's wife where he asks her to touch his face and he says "they made this to honor" Murphy, which could suggest they just modeled the face after his and it's synthetic.
It's really all fascinating to consider.
In "RoboCop 2," he's said to have pain sensors and I can't imagine that could be the case without the inclusion of nerves or nerve endings to some extent. One has to wonder why OCP would insist on a cyborg that feels pain but obviously I suppose that's a byproduct of the process of interfacing man and machine that just can't be avoided.