I'm new to the sprawling Marvel Multiverse am trying to follow the characters from the television Agents of SHIELD in comics.
What comics follow MCU Agent Coulson and Agents of SHIELD? Where do the fit in on the TV series timeline?
There are a few books titled Agents of SHIELD, including a new 2016 book which is billed as being "inspired by" the show.
It's high-stakes espionage in the Marvel Universe in this brand-new series inspired by the hit television show Marvel's Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.
However, while the comics use characters who are on the show, the comics are firmly set within the main Earth-616 (comics only) universe, as it crosses over with the recent Civil War 2 storyline, and involves Tony Stark interacting with a known-to-be-alive Phil Coulson.
As such, if you're trying to follow the further adventures of the characters of the TV show between the episodes in the MCU (Earth-199999), we're currently out of luck.
There are, however, a few one-shot and mini-series MCU tie-in comics that involve Phil Coulson. These all occur before the TV show, and do not involve any show related characters other than Coulson and Fury.
Agents of SHIELD 2016
There is an ongoing current series, Agents of SHIELD. It features many of the same characters in the show, as different versions of themselves, with similarities to the show. It bills itself as "Inspired by the hit TV series".
This series exists in the main, current Marvel comic universe, but it is NOT part of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The names and personalities are similar, but it is taking some characters/concepts from the TV show, and porting hem into the comic universe.
The 7th issue was just released in mid-July as a Civil War 2 tie-in issue.
The series has featured, so far, Coulson, Skye, Melinda May, Fitz/Simmons, Ward, Bobbie Morse (Mockingbird), and Deathlock. There may be others too. It also features many other Marvel heroes/characters as well.
Link to series on Marvel's website:
There was a 12-issue run of SHIELD in the pre-Secret Wars Marvel Comic Universe that also featured many of the same characters as in the 2016 series, using the same premise. Similar characters from the TV show, different universe than the MCU.