Orbalisks made Bane and other Siths extra powerful in the Force and gave them incredible armor, at some costs such as chronic pain.
Did any Jedi ever have an orbalisk?
This question concerns Jedi in both Legends and Canon.
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Orbalisks require using the Dark Side of the Force.
Perhaps by nature or as a result of residing on Dxun (which was itself a great focus of dark side power), orbalisks were able to feed on the Force-sensitivity of darksiders.
Orbalisks caused the wearer to feel pain, fueling the wearers dark side power and if they were removed or killed, they would release a highly potent toxin into the host's body.
Darth Bane, however, was able to remain alive by allowing the orbalisks to feed off the dark side energy in his body.
From Darth Bane: Rule of Two:
They feel the power of the dark side within you. ―Darth Bane on orbalisks
Since using orbalisks requires extensive Dark Side usage, no true Jedi would be able to utilize one.