The original Pangaran version of Tretonin required daily injections. Its effect was that the human injecting it would have their natural human immune system suppressed and they would become dependant on Tretonin, however in return they possessed perfect health at all times, never getting sick. This version of Tretonin would have been even more effective had the source, Egeria, not deliberately introduced a genetic defect into her offspring to limit their usefulness.
(Episode 6.10, "Cure")
The refined version of Tretonin created by the Tok'Ra was designed to be used exclusively by the Jaffa to remove their dependancy on symbiotes, while still retaining some of the strength and natural curing capabilities that symbiote provided, first given to Teal'c and Bra'Tac to save their lives after they lost their symbiotes.
(Episode 6.19, "The Changeling")
No human has ever injected the Refined form of Tretonin, though the Tau'Ri did gain the ability to manufacture it after being granted the knowledge of the Asgards, so we probably started experimenting with it at some point, you know how humans are. We've created Replicators and cloned Goa'ulds in the past, after all.
(Episode 10.20, "Unending")
Some possible outcomes of human consumption might be:
- No Effect - The Tok'Ra engineered it for Jaffa use, so a human would be unaffected by it.
- Minor effects - There are still effects due to the similarities in human and Jaffa physiology, but as the drug is tuned to Jaffa, the human only has a marginal increase in natural ability, similar to if they had taken a caffeine pill.
- Dependancy - The human injecting Refined Tretonin would gain some superior strength and health, but become as dependant on Tretonin as a Jaffa, essentially created a kind of drug-addicted super soldier.
- Toxic - Being engineered for Jaffa use, the drug is harmful to humans, causing a reaction that could harm or even kill the user.
Personally, I find #3 to be the most likely, but it's an avenue that's never been explored and understandably the leader of the SGC isn't willing to put any of their soldiers' lives at risk to test it out. So we may never truly know. Unless the reboot tells us something, but I'm not gonna hold my breath.