There are only a few Jedi who had children in all of canon and Legends. The following are the ones I am aware of who had children while under the authority of the Jedi Council1:
The Jedi Council (what was left of it) did not find out about Skywalker's children, Luke and Leia, until after the Jedi Order was destroyed (the twins were born right at the end of the Clone Wars). Consequently, we do not know how the Council would have reacted if it had found out earlier. On the one hand, Skywalker's obvious anger issues might have caused the Council to act; on the other hand, it's unlikely the Council would do much to one of their most seasoned fighters so late in the Clone Wars.
Mundi and was allowed to have multiple wives and children due to the low birth rates of his species, the Cereans. I'm sure it also helped that he happened to be a member of the Jedi Council. He was required not to get too attached to his family, as
unrealistic difficult as that must have been.
Vos had a son named Korto Vos after the Clone Wars ended and the Jedi Order was destroyed. We do not know what the Jedi Council would have done, since it no longer existed.
Halcyon had a son named Hal Horn, who was even trained as a Padawan by his father. Halycon kept Horn's paternity a secret from the Council, though, so we don't know what repercussions Halcyon would have faced.2
Solusar was a Jedi Master who married and had a son against the will of the Jedi Council. He was reprimanded by the Council but he was not expelled from the Order (and the Council did not attempt to force an abortion).
Tur-Mukan had a son, Venku Skirata, by clone commando RC-1136/IC-1136 "Darman Skirata". Aside from Anakin Skywalker, this is probably the closest case of an accidental pregnancy, since it's unlikely Tur-Mukan consciously chose to get pregnant while both she and her lover were fighting in the Clone Wars. However, the Jedi Council never found out about this pregnancy so it's not clear how the Council might have acted.
Note that while several of the aforementioned characters exist in canon, in some cases their children exist only in Legends. Anakin Skywalker is the only Jedi in the above list with children who exist in canon. Since the Jedi Council was unaware of his children until the Jedi Order was destroyed, from a canon point of view we do not know what the Jedi Council would have done with a Jedi who conceived a child.
Even when we include Legends, most Jedi who had children hid it and therefore we don't know what the Jedi Council would have done in those cases. Some, like Ki-Adi Mundi,
had the right connections and were given exceptions and allowed to have children. Others were reprimanded but ultimately allowed to have the child and even remain in the Order. Therefore, from a Legends point of view, the Jedi Council's punishment for a Jedi who conceived a child was light: at worst, the Jedi would receive a reprimand but would be allowed to remain in the Order.
1Note that other Jedi had children while not under the authority of the Jedi Council. For example, the Jedi Knights Kento Marek and Mallie Marek had a son named Galen Marek. However, Kento and Mallie went into self-imposed exile before marrying and conceiving Galen. Since they left the Order, the Jedi Council had no power over them and I exclude them from the above list. (Incidentally, they also survived Order 66 primarily because they had already left the Jedi Order.)
2It might seem implausible that the Jedi were unaware of a father training his own son right under their noses, but these were the same Jedi so blind that they couldn't detect the Sith Lord in their midst as Supreme Chancellor of the Republic.