Have Spider-Man and Nightcrawler fought before?
If so, who won?
Yes, they've fought. Nobody really won.
Spider-Man and Nightcrawler first meet in Amazing Spider-Man Vol 1 161, published in October, 1976. As usually happens when Marvel superheroes unexpectedly meet up, one mistakes the other for the villain they are after, and fighting ensues:
He ends up running into Nightcrawler, whom he assumes is the killer, when he catches the mutant with the snipers weapon. Their fight takes them across the amusement park, however Nightcrawler gets away with his teleportation powers and Spider-Man is forced to flee when the police arrive.
As the Punisher begins his own investigation on who's been besmirching his reputation, Spider-Man continues his search for Nightcrawler. The teleporting mutant manages to get the drop on Spider-Man, grabbing his camera and exposing the film, destroying the "evidence" that he's the shooter. As the two fight across NYC's cable car system, their fight is suddenly interrupted by the arrival of the Punisher, who believes that one of the two combating heroes is the one who has been framing him.
This fight continues in the next issue, Amazing Spider-Man Vol 1 162.
The heroes team up to find the real killer:
When the two heroes battle the Punisher, all learn that the killer is someone else entirely when they're attacked by the real sniper. Nightcrawler teleports away, and the Punisher and Spider-Man agree to work together to find out who the killer is.
The two meet again in Marvel Team-Up Vol 1 89, from January, 1980, but do not fight. Far from it, Nightcrawler tries to save Spider-Man from an assassin.