There seems to be no evidence that they did.
They failed/couldn't take it and then pretty soon after went undercover and on the run. Hermione does seem to do the majority of the Apparating, or seems to lead the way, though Harry definitely does do it fully himself at least once, taking Ron and Hermione with him on this occasion. (When escaping the Ministry - the film makes it appear that Hermione is in charge here too, but in the book Harry grabs them and goes, though Yaxley still grabs Hermione and is able to follow).
Harry and Ron were breaking the law in this case, but they were about as wanted as can be at the time, and being caught just was not an option. Too much was at stake to worry about not taking every step possible. Fortunately for them, once Harry became 17, the Trace could not be used against them.
I'm guessing that they passed the test after the events of the books, as it should surely by this time be quite quick and easy for them to do so - unless after the events of the books their missing education and requirements for licenses like this one were all permanently waived.