I've found a comprehensive marvel movie timeline and it mentions that the super soldier serum was developed as part of the 'Weapons Plus' program. Is this in anyway related to the Weapon X program that produced Wolverine?
In the early and mid-90's, most readers assumed that Weapon X was meant to be pronounced "Weapon Ex", but it was later revealed that the X was meant as a Roman Numeral. Weapon 10 was a project under the "Weapons Plus" program which has existed since the 1940's.
Based on discovered research by Mister Sinister, the various Weapon projects have dealt with genetic experimentation on various subjects in an effort to create super soldiers.
The Weapon I and Weapon X projects are the most notable projects as they resulted in the creation of Captain America and the enhancements of Wolverine, Sabretooth and Deadpool.