Always in motion is the future, as Yoda often said. To see ones own future is tricky indeed. Jedi foreseeing is not an exact science at all, unlike telekinesis or lightsaber skills.
(Palpatine did not foresee that Obi-Wan was going to defeat Anakin, quite the opposite in fact as he even mentioned how he didn't expect that at all, because he underestimated the zeal with it Obi-Wan fought. He said if all the Jedi fought like Obi-Wan did, the sith wouldn't stand a chance)
The Jedi always taught anyone with a force vision to NEVER try and stop the vision, because more times than not, YOU are the actual CAUSE of making the vision come true in the first place. Many times such visions are actually the result of various emotions and desires going on in the subconscious mind that become manifested and amplified by the Jedi's own force powers.
So this is why in trying to stop a vision that you have, you can actually make it happen as it becomes a sort of self fulfilling prophecy.
Also as Palpatine said regarding seeing the future and sensing connections "It has everything to do with awareness. No one was all powerful with the force and no one was infallible with it's use". So no matter how powerful in the force someone is, you are no where near being God or perfect in all things.
Yoda is regarded as one of the top five most powerful Jedi to have ever lived in the history of the galaxy, and even he failed to see the rise of the Sith.
Palpatine was also so confident in how thoroughly he had purged the dark side from Vader, that, along with the fact that Vader was on the dark side for over 20 years now, that there was no chance of him ever turning against him.
Of course this shows how ultimately Luke was really more powerful than Palpatine as Luke and consistently sensed the little bit of good in Vader that he was going to try to resurrect. Once Vader saw Luke being killed by Palpatine, and knowing that he could no longer have any children due to his injuries and his condition, finally awoke that little bit of the light side in him that neither Palpatine nor Vader could get rid of. Yes, Vader himself was trying to remove all the remnants of the light side in him, those little bit of compassion, mercy or emotional attachments, but he could never get rid of it all fully. Those are the qualities that Luke kept sensing that Vader was struggling with which eventually reawakened once Luke's like was in jeopardy, and those are the qualities in Vader that Palpatine either failed to sense, or simply didn't think they were strong enough to overcome the dark side in Vader.
Palpatine was simply too confident in the dark side overall as he felt that it would keep Vaders light side from awakening, and if it did, that same power would keep Vader loyal to his Master. As Vader said to Luke "You don't know the POWER of the dark side.. I MUST obey, my Master".
These are the reasons why Palaptine failed to see Vader turning against him at that time, though he knew that Vader was plotting it, for it's the way of the Sith.
Prides goes before a fall.