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From the context provided in the movie/books, this bridge has no real significance; like it's a side-door to the kingdom. Visual depictions give it no real significance either.

The Bridge of Khazad-dum

That being said, (most likely due to the fact that Dwarves are experts in stone integrity) it can withstand the weight of a Balrog, and even through Gandalf's efforts, he was only able to crack it (again, could be argued that that was all he intended to do, as that was all that was necessary).

So is there anything special about this bridge in particular, or was its claim to fame purely its involvement in the defeat of Durin's Bane?

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There are no known historical events surrounding the Bridge of Khazad-dûm, aside from the confrontation between Gandalf and Durin's Bane.

That being said, Fellowship notes that the Bridge was a piece of defensive architecture:

At the end of the hall the floor vanished and fell to an unknown depth. The outer door could only be reached by a slender bridge of stone, without kerb or rail, that spanned the chasm with one curving spring of fifty feet. It was an ancient defence of the Dwarves against any enemy that might capture the First Hall and the outer passages. They could only pass across it in single file.

Fellowship of the Ring Book II Chapter 5: "The Bridge of Khazad-dûm"

So I would submit that it was quite a bit more important than "a side-door to the kingdom," but there's no record of the bridge being used for this purpose.

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    It's also worth noting that it's name is also of no importance, as Khazad-Dum was the original Dwarvish name for Moria, and the bridge itself was originally called Durin's Bridge, because it was built by Durin's folk. It might as well be called "The bridge some Dwarves led by Durin built while they happened to be mining Moria", but that doesn't sound quite as epic as "The Bridge of Khazad-Dum". – DisturbedNeo Sep 29 '16 at 12:59
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    @DisturbedNeo "It's just a Dum bridge..." - Durin's teenage son – user11521 Sep 29 '16 at 18:45
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    Most likely, the reason you do not have any record of its use in combat is due to its effectiveness. As an attacking general, if a defensive position looks impenetrable, you avoid it. – Sensii Miller Sep 29 '16 at 20:47
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    "They have taken the Bridge, and the Second Hall." makes it sound like the bridge was considered a major landmark, perhaps because you had to cross it to enter the dwarven city. Gives a whole new meaning to "bridge-and-tunnel folk". – Ber Nov 5 '16 at 6:46
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As stated in the other comment, the bridge was an access point, and its principal feature was that it was slim and railless. As an access point, huge amounts of wares and loads would have to pass it, and it was no draw bridge: as long as there was a defense, it would be defensible. So it is quite plausible that it was built to last.

If it even was built rather than being an ancient part of the mountain carved down until only the bridgeway remained suitable for crossing.

  • Are you sure this was a ware access point? It seems there's little worse for transporting wares than a bridge so narrow you can only cross it in single file. – Cubic Sep 30 '16 at 9:04

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