Which Starfleet uniforms have pockets? And where are the pockets?
Within Starfleet, there are a few example of uniforms with pockets:
Enterprise-era jumpsuits contained a lot of pockets, suiting the utilitarian nature of Starfleet uniforms during this era.
The Next Generation TV era: Pockets are sparse in this era, though Beverly Crusher has a lab coat with pockets.
Voyager: Belanna Torres used, for most of season 4, an "engineering jacket" with a breast pocket. Out of universe, the reason for this was to hide the actress' pregnancy.
It is also likely that the uniforms seen in 'The Search for Spock' and 'The Voyage Home' also contain at least one hidden pocket inside, since whilst incognito in San Francisco communicators and phasers are carried without being seen outside the uniform.
These, however, seem to be exceptions from the norm. Rather than obvious pockets, most Starfleet personnel usually use pouches, attached to the hip, when required to hold equipment and holster phasers etc based on the requirements of the task.