Sometime around the late 1980s, I checked out a science fiction anthology from a library. (The stories were written in English.) I don't remember if all the stories were by the same author, but two of them definitely were. They are the ones I seem to remember best from this book, so I'll summarize the major plot points:
The (third-person) viewpoint character and his best friend are angry young men living on a colony planet which just barely lives hand-to-mouth, with strict rationing and other unpopular controls which make the common people feel their rights are being trampled underfoot. (I have the vague impression that ships from Earth arrived rarely, and so the colony had to feed itself as it went along, or else starve to death. But I'm not clear on the details.)
These two men are ringleaders of a resistance movement which resents the way the current ruling class has been running things. I think the "ruling class" may have been corporate executives -- at any rate, I'm positive that they were not the winners of recent "fair and open" elections, or else the angry young men simply would have been planning to try to unseat them in the next regularly-scheduled election. (I don't think this colony had elections at all, fair or otherwise.)
In the end, the revolution succeeds in staging a near-bloodless (perhaps utterly bloodless?) coup. Once it begins, I think it's all over within a matter of hours. In large part because a great many other colonist-workers, even if they were not active rebels, were highly sympathetic to the idea that it was time for a drastic change! When the viewpoint character confronts the now-former "chief executive" (or whatever his exact title was), the latter seems tired, and somewhat relieved, at the thought that now it's someone else's problem to try to manage the local economy, etc.
The story ends with the viewpoint character now sitting in the office of the former "chief executive," and having a private talk with the other character who had helped him organize the coup. The new chief executive talks about the painful lessons he's learned since gaining access to the central records a few days ago. For instance, he says that he's realized that the only way to keep the colony alive (adequate food production, perhaps, in this alien environment? And/or producing some valuable commodity which will persuade Earth to keep doing business with them, instead of writing the colony off as a dead loss?) is to arrange for a large number of men to work, in rotation, on an incredibly unpopular assignment. I forget exactly what, but the irony is that the old regime's recent announcement of this upcoming assignment, lonely and strenuous, far away from the one real city of the colony (as I recall), had played a large part in making it feasible for the revolution to succeed!
In the anthology that I read, the next story in the book was a direct sequel to the one I just described. It still deals with the same character as the main viewpoint character, but now it's been at least 10 years (or more?) and he can see that, although he's tried to be more even-handed and liberal than his predecessor, popular resentment is building up for a brand new revolution directed at unseating him! The only thing that saves him is that there's just been some sort of breakthrough which at last will make it much easier (in terms of man-hours of hard labor each month) for the colony to become truly self-sufficient.
I don't insist you identify the anthology for me. If you can just identify one or both of the short stories that I summarized in Points 1 through 5, with the title(s) and the author's name, that will be a "correct answer." From there, I can handle it on my own. (ISFDB should be able to tell me what book or books have included those stories. I've never again run across either of them in anything else I've read since the 1980s.)