I remember reading this short story sometime in the 1980's. The story could be older though - perhaps as far back as the 1950's. It had an Asimov/Clarke feel to it, but I can't remember who wrote it.
In the story, there is a civilisation that survives by living in towns/small cities. They can act, move around - but periodically a dome will appear. Not sure if the people activate it, or whether it is automatic, but the people know when its about to happen.
When the dome is active, everything inside the dome is frozen - time is literally at a standstill. The domes are usually switched on for dozens of years at a time. I think this was to protect the inhabitants from something.
One person gets trapped outside the dome. Much of the story takes place hundreds of years later, when her journals are discovered, and tell of her travels across the planet. She was alone the whole time, but discovered much.
That's about all I can remember.